FS had predominantly 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (0.58 mg/kg) with high free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, 86.23%). Saponification value of oil serves as an important parameter in determining the suitability of the oil for soap making [34]. An amount of the milled seed was used for the Soxhlet extraction [26]. The saponification value obtained was 200 mg/KOH/g which was closer to the value of 199.50 mg/KOH/g obtained for Adebayor, Orhevba [27]. (Chairman, 1976-1985, 2011; CEO, 1997–2011)( Current :Tim Cook. The African star apple food supplement formulation was produced by blending African star apple pulp powder and pre-gelatinized starch in different ratios - 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, 3:7, 2:8, and 1:9 respectively. Dr Lisa Schipper and Lara Langston. From a nutritional perspective, the African star apple is a rich source of calcium, with each serving providing up to 10% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA). Chemical parameters and sensory attributes were determined. (Supplementary Materials). It was then pyrolyzed in a furnace (Nabertherm, LE140K1BN, 230V, 1/N/PE) at a temperature of 500°C for two hours. Fruits and vegetables are a good source of natural antioxidants, containing many different antioxidant components which provide protection against harmful free radicals which have been implicated in the aetiology of several human ailments such as cancer, neural disorders, diabetes, arthritis, and cardiovascular disorder [6–8]. List of various diseases cured by Star Apple. But how? Imaginative and inspiring, Author Wilson Ayinbangya Amooro displays a refreshing and unique literary style th… A. Orhevba, P. A. Adeoye, J. J. Musa, and O. J. Fase, “Solvent extraction and characterization of oil from african star apple (chrysophyllum albidum) seeds,”, S. E. Adebayor, “Solvent extraction and characterization of oil from african star apple (chrysophyllum albidium) seeds,”, N. Ahalya, R. D. Kanamadi, and T. V. Ramachandra, “Biosorption of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by the husk of Bengal gram (Cicer arientinum),”, K. A. Krishnan and T. S. Anirudhan, “Removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by steam-activated sulphurised carbon prepared from sugar-cane bagasse pith: Kinetics and equilibrium studies,”, M. Umaru, A. G. Isah, I. ( Ronald Wayne. The initial concentrations of the methyl orange are 0.2mg/l for CaCl2 and MgCl2, respectively, and 0.5mg/l for ZnCl2. Physical and Chemical Properties of the Extracted. The calculated parameters of the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second order models for the adsorption methyl orange using activated ZnCl. A round bottom flask containing analytical grade N-Hexane (99%) was fitted with a reflux condenser to the top. African Star Apples are a type of fruit that grow in the Pride Lands. packs a real punch’ Andy McDermott TO POSSESS IT HE WILL PAY IN BLOOD Where ex-SAS major Ben Hope goes, trouble always follows… The star apple tree is erect, 25 to 100 ft (8-30 m) tall, with a short trunk to 3 ft (1 m) thick, and a dense, broad crown, brown-hairy branchlets, and white, gummy latex. FS also significantly (P = 0.05) enhanced (36–109%) the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The seeds and roots extracts of Chrysophyllum albidum are used to arrest bleeding from fresh wounds and to inhibit microbial growth of known wound contaminants and also enhance the wound healing process [11]. Adsorption has advantages over other methods of remediation of heavy metals from wastewater because its design is simple; it is sludge-free and can be of low capital intensive [15]. The Star Apple is of the family Sapotaceae and relative of the mamey sapote and the green sapote. Chemical activation with CaCl2 seems not to perform as efficient as that of the ZnCl2 and MgCl2 as shown in Figure 2. African star apple fruit pulp‐supplemented diet modulates fertility‐related biomolecules in the testis and epididymis of high‐fat diet/streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats It was however higher than that of Ominyi, Ominyi [31] which was 90.71 mg/KOH/g but lower for Musa, Isah [30] who reported 228.4 mg/KOH/g. The oil was extracted using hexane with the soxhlet apparatus at a temperature of 65°C for 4 hours. This property makes the leaves/fruits useful medically, for the treatment of type two diabetes though … Although the cherry farming business is not popular in Nigeria, the profitability of the business is without a doubt. Apple Inc.. ( formerly Apple Computer, Inc.) is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. African star apple validated to reduce blood sugar, cholesterol By CHUKWUMA MUANYA, Assistant Editor (Head Insight Team, Science and Technology) 07 January 2016 | 6:10 am Development into an acceptable food supplement (FS) with anti-stress potentials has not been explored. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Development and evaluation of African star apple (, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (PubChem CID: 237332), 2,5-Furandione, dihydro-3-methylene (PubChem CID: 75110), 4H-Pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihyro-3, 5-dihydroxy-6-methyl (PubChem CID: 119838). Each issue features a collection of poetry, short fiction, and essays. There are several fruits in Ghana that have essential oils which are of great medical importance. The iodine value of the extracted oil was measured and found to be 72.8 mg/KOH/g. The iodine value is a measure of the degree of unsaturation of vegetable oils and determines the stability to oxidation and allows the overall unsaturation of the fat to be measured quantitatively [37]. Their results showed that the oil yield was of 21.57% and acid values were of 2.87. Low free fatty acids content is indicative of low enzymatic hydrolysis. *This sample paper was adapted by the Writing Center from Key, K.L., Rich, C., DeCristofaro, C., Collins, S. (2010). This has been worrying me for some time. Apple have already pounced on the opportunity by creating the iPhone, iPad and Apple Watch. Article. African literature is literature of or from Africa and includes oral literature (or "orature", in the term coined by Ugandan scholar Pio Zirimu).. As George Joseph notes in his chapter on African literature in Understanding Contemporary Africa, whereas European views of literature often stressed a separation of art and content, African awareness is inclusive: African literature, an area where the relationship of the artist with the land is absolutely recognised and understood, covers a huge range of languages, cultures and colonial contexts. Former : Steve Jobs. Seed shells of the Chrysophyllum albidum were air-dried for 14 days to constant weight and ground into powder. Published online: 13 May 2020. It was further air-dried for 7 days and then oven-dried in a laboratory oven (MMM Medcenter Ecocell 55) at 105°C for 8 hours to reduce the moisture content. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. Impact on oxidative stress marker - malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) were monitored in Rats stressed and fed FS. The African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) is a kind of fruit that is grown in Ghana. ‎THE SENSATIONAL ADVENTURE FROM THE #1 BESTSELLING AUTHOR ‘Deadly conspiracies, bone-crunching action and a tormented hero with a heart . The data obtained were fitted to adsorption isotherm models. Apple Inc Report contains a full analysis of Apple corporate social responsibility including Apple CSR issues. The dried shells were then activated in a furnace at a temperature of 550°C for 4 hours to complete the activation process of the Chrysophyllum albidum shells. From Figure 2, it is observed that the rate of dye reduction generally increased rapidly within the first two hours of contact time for all three shells with different activation chemicals. The seed shells can also be used as low-cost adsorbent when activated with CaCl2, ZnCl2, and MgCl2. It has a specific gravity of 0.92 at 30°C which is different from that of Adebayor, Orhevba [27] who had 0.89 at 25°C, 0.8269 at 25°C for [31]. I have been reading and taking notes and I know, in theory, that my review should bring many aspects of a work together in a smooth and efficient manner. Pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetics of the dye. African star apple contains eleagnine that works against microbes. They are known by a variety of different names such as golden-leaf tree, caimito maduraverde in Spain, caimite and caimitier in France and cainito and ajara in Portugal. Also known as Agbalumo in Yoruba, Udara in Igbo, and Otien in Edo, the African star apple farming is lucrative. An acceptable FS with good anti-stress potential has been developed to further expand the utilization for ASA. The extract seeped through the pores of the thimble and filled a syphon tube and this was allowed to continue for 6 hours. The straight-line plot of log (qe-qt) against t gives log (qe) as slope and intercept equal to k1/2.303. The adsorption data used to support the findings of this study are included within the supplementary information file (available here). The experiment was conducted under room temperature of 25 C. The change in concentration of the dye with time could be seen in the date above. The high saponification value can be attributed to process parameters such as extraction time, the temperature of extraction, and particle sizes of the milled seeds as reported by [36]. A. Abia, M. Horsfall Jr., and O. Didi, “The use of chemically modified and unmodified cassava waste for the removal of Cd, Cu and Zn ions from aqueous solution,”, R. R. Bansode, J. N. Losso, W. E. Marshall, R. M. Rao, and R. J. Portier, “Pecan shell-based granular activated carbon for treatment of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in municipal wastewater,”, A. H. Mahvi, D. Naghipour, F. Vaezi, and S. Nazmara, “Teawaste as an adsorbent for heavy metal removal from industrial wastewaters,”, O. S. Amuda, O. I. Ojo, and T. I. Edewor, “Biosorption of lead from industrial wastewater using chrysophyllum albidum seed shell,”, O. S. Amuda, T. I. Edewor, T. J. Afolabi, and Y.-T. Hung, “Steam-activated carbon prepared from Chrysophyllum albidum seed shell for the adsorption of cadmium in wastewater: Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies,”, F. K. Onwu and S. P. I. Ogah, “Studies on the effect of pH on the sorption of cadmium (II), nickel (II), lead (II) and chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by African white star apple (Chrysophyllum albidium) shell,”, S. E. Adebayo, B. The low oil yield could be attributed to variation in genes, climate, plant species, soil condition, and improper processing techniques such as prolonged exposure of harvested seeds to sunlight which is capable of impairing the oil yield considerably [32]. Siphamandla Zondi. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. During pyrolysis, nitrogen gas at a flow rate 0.1m3/hr was used as purge gas. The extract was then heated to recover the solvent with a rotary evaporator (R00102439, 50W/15A) leaving behind the extracted oil. The dried seeds were further air-dried for 5 days and then oven-dried at a temperature of 100°C for 24 hours in a laboratory oven (MMM Medcenter Ecocell 55). ( Steve Wozniak . First of all, Apple’s product line encompasses a series of brilliant and distinctive products, such as Mac (Macintosh), iPod, iPhone and iPad; and in the mean time the designers of Apple Inc. are improving and innovating on their product line constantly. ASA were washed, de-pulped, oven-dried (65 °C, 18 h) and milled (≤180 µm). African star apple is a tropical edible fruit that is widely consumed among Nigerians. Once again, the cotyledons contained in the african star apple seeds have an anti-hyperglycemia effect that has an effect on the decrease in high … Supplement significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde). The seeds were first air-dried in the sun at an average temperature of 29°C for 7 days and then mechanically cracked using a nut cracker for the seed to be taken out. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. It is published twice annually, once in spring and once in fall. The refractive index, viscosity, saponification values, acid value, iodine value, free fatty acid value, specific gravity, and other parameters of the oil were determined using AOAC (2000) [27]. Studies were conducted by [25] on the effect of pH on the sorption of cadmium (ll), nickel (II), lead (II), and chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by African white star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) shell and realised the process is highly pH-dependent. The seeds of Chrysophyllum albidum have been used in the adsorption of lead Pb from industrial wastewater by some researchers [23] where the effects of pH, contact time, and adsorbent mass were monitored. There are two different varieties of Star Apples one with purple skin and one with green skin. Rising intake of supplement positively correlated with Hepatoprotective activity. However, it may not be suitable for the production of surface coatings, varnishes, and oil paints due to its nondrying attribute. The pyrolyzed shells were milled into a powdery form and sieved with a laboratory mesh of size +500μm. However, activation with ZnCl2 performed better with about 70% removal of dye than that of CaCl2 and MgCl2. The Apple Valley Review is an online literary journal. This was higher than that obtained by Adebayor, Orhevba [27] and Musa, Isah [30] but lower than that obtained Ominyi, Ominyi [31]. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to identify the various functional groups present in the oil. 1 Information 2 Appearance 3 History 3.1 The Ukumbusho Tradition 3.2 Timon and Pumbaa's Christmas 3.3 The Scorpion's Sting 3.4 Little Old Ginterbong African tar apples are used as a food source, as well as to create paint with. This could be attributed to the active vacant sites within the activated shells as reported by [40]. The oil of Chrysophyllum albidum has been extracted from the corresponding seeds in a soxhlet extractor with hexane (boiling point range: 55°C-65°C) and analyzed for moisture content, pH, specific gravity, saponification value, refractive index, peroxide value, acid number, free fatty acid, and iodine value by [12]. 2019, Article ID 4959586, 8 pages, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/4959586, 1Department of Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, 2Department of Chemistry, Water and Sanitation Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. A. Ashaye, and M. O. Oladapo, “Biodetermination of the african star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) in storage and the effect on its food value,”, S. S. Ochigbo and Y. The FTIR analysis of the extracted oil was also found to contain some functional groups. To remind us all of the humanity of these refugees, and perhaps shed a little light on their experience, below are a few recommendations for great works of literature either written by refugees, or about the refugee experience, or both—not, of course, an exhaustive list by … Figure 2 shows the effect of contact time of adsorption of the shells in the dye solution. The functional groups identified within the wavelength of 1709 – 1744 cm−1 were compared to oil from Chamomile and Rosemary by Anwer S. El-Badry, and Sameh S. Ali [39] as well as the Corn and Mustard oil to represent C= O ester carbonyl of triglycerides [39]. The oil was extracted using hexane with the soxhlet apparatus at a temperature of 65°C for 4 hours. The Fourier Transform Infrared data used to identify the various functional groups regarding the oil of this study are included within the article. Africa Review, Volume 12, Issue 2 (2020) Articles . B. Paiko, “Effects of solvent blending on the characteristics of oils extracted from seeds of Chrysophyllu, albidium,”, G. Nimet, “Extraction of sunflower (Heliantus annuus L.) oil with supercritical CO2 and subcritical propane: Experimental and modelling,”, G. Cao, E. Sofic, and R. L. Prior, “Antioxidant capacity of tea and common vegetables,”, H. Wang, G. H. Cao, and R. L. Prior, “Total antioxidant capacity of fruits,”, Y. S. Velioglu, G. Mazza, L. Gao, and B. D. Oomah, “Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products,”, F. M. Oloyede and F. A. Oloyede, “The Antioxidant and Food value of Chrysophyllum albidium,”, D. S. Olorunnisola, “Anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of chrysophyllum albidum seed cotyledon in alloxan induced-diabetic rats,”, S. Sayyar, Z. The results showed an average oil yield obtained of 11.6%, specific gravity of 0.92kg/m3, the refractive index of 1.464 at 30°C, an acid value of 7.72 mg KOH/g, a free fatty acid value of 3.16 g/100g, saponification value of 200.56 mg KOH/g, and an iodine value of 70.64 g/100g. The acid value is an important indicator of oxidation of the oil. Physical and chemical parameters of the African Star Apple seed oil (Chrysophyllum albidum) are presented in Table 1. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Literature Review. B. Adelola, P. A. Aderemi, J. M. Jiya, and O. F. Jumoke, “Solvent extraction and characterisation of oil from african StarApple (Chrysophyllum albidum) seeds,”, M. Umaru, A. G. Isah, M. U. Garba, and U. Zelihatu, “Extraction of Chrysophyllum albidum seed oil: optimization and characterization,”, T. Viraraghvan and M. M. Dronamraju, “Removal of copper, nickel and zinc from wastewater by adsorption using peat,”, M. A. Amer, F. I. Khaili, and A. M. Awwad, “Adsorption of lead, zinc and cadmium ions on polyphosphate-modified kaolinite clay,”, G. Yan and T. Viraraghavan, “Heavy metal removal in a biosorption column by immobilized, M. Dakiky, M. Khamis, A. Manassra, and M. Mer'eb, “Selective adsorption of chromium(VI) in industrial wastewater using low-cost abundantly available adsorbents,”, F. E. Okieimen, E. U. Okundia, and D. E. Ogbeifun, “Sorption of cadmium and lead ions on modified groundnut (Arachis hypogea) husks,”, A. 5-Hydroxylmethylfurfural was the dominant Bioactive observed. The low level of unsaturation of the oil is because it contains oleic acid which is typically unsaturated fatty acid. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. Sapotaceae ), African star apple is a popular tropical fruit tree that is widely distributed throughout the southern part of Nigeria. Selected major works and authors are taken from all the periods of African-American literature to show the breadth and variety of African-Ameri… Michael A. Anang, Michael Oteng-Peprah, Kwasi Opoku-Boadu, "Extraction and Characterisation of African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) Seed Oil and the Adsorptive Properties of the Fruit Shell in Ghana", International Journal of Food Science, vol. Blending with pre-gelatinized starch (pulp:starch, 7:3) followed, yielding the FS. A Mohammed et al., “Extraction of chrysophyllum albidum seed oil: optimisation and characterisation,”, C. E. Ominyi, C. J. Ominyi, and U. Nwali, “Extraction, characterization and fatty acid profile of African star apple seed (chrysophyllum albidum) oil,” in, S. R. Antony, D. S. smart, and C. R. Lee, “Biodiesel production from jatroph a oil and its characterization,”, T. F. Akinhanmi, V. N. Atasie, and P. O. Akintokun, “Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of cashew nut (, U. D. Akpabio and I. Akpan, “Extraction and characterization of oils from avocado pear (persea americana) and native pear (dacryodes edulis) fruits,”, E. Akbar, Y. Zahira, K. K. Siti, I. Manal, and S. Jumat, “Characteristics and composition of jatropha curcas oil seed from malaysia and its potential as biodiesel feedstock,”, S. M. Mahale and A. S. Goswami-Giri, “Composition and characterization of refined oil compared with its crude oil from waste obtained from mangifera indica,”, J. M. Nzikou, L. Matos, G. Bouanga-Kalou et al., “Chemical composition on the seeds and oil of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) grown in Congo-Brazzaville,”, E. Zahir, R. Saeed, M. A. Hameed, and A. Yousuf, “Study of physicochemical properties of edible oil and evaluation of frying oil quality by Fourier Transform-Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy,”, S. Anwer, El-Badry., and S. S. Ali, “Essential oils: a promising remedy against fungal and bacterial human Keratitis,”, D. K. Kowanga, G. O. Mauti, and E. Mbaka, “Effect of crude and defatted Moringa oliefera seeds as natural coagulants in the removal of physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters from turbid river water,”, S. Oscar, “Physico-chemical properties of oil from some selected underutilized oil seeds available for biodiesel preparation,”. Pages: 119-132. The fruits are not usually harvested from the trees, but left to drop naturally to the forest floor where they are picked [3]. In good oil, the acid value should be very low (< 0.1) and an increase in acid value is an indicator of oxidation of the oil which may lead to gum and sludge formation beside corrosion. 20g of the pyrolised powdered shells was weighed and added to 250ml of the various activation chemical aqueous solutions. Oil from plant and animal are employed in the formulation of foods, cosmetics, and drugs in many industrial activities [5]. This complex taste lends itself well when paired in sweet dishes as a dessert or added to a cocktail. 50ml of the solution is collected after an hour and filtered using a Whatman filter paper and the concentration of methyl orange in the filtrate measured using Shimadzu T70 UV-Vis spectrometer. Pseudo-first-order adsorption kinetics of the dye. 1g of the activated shell was weighed and dissolved in a litre of the solution and stirred using a laboratory stirrer at 250rpm. MDA was lower (0.92 ± 0.04nmole/ml) in Rats stressed and fed the FS when compared to exclusively stressed groups (2.28 ± 0.09nmole/ml). Gender equality and Climate Compatible Development . ‎This course is a study of the periods and major genres of African-American Literature – poetry, prose, drama, vernacular tradition, essays, and non-fiction. . Most plant seeds are a source of essential oils. Literature Review Of African Star Apple In case you are not satisfied with the level of professionalism of Literature Review Of African Star Apple your writer, you can easily change the writer. The percentage of removal of sorbent was calculated using where R% is the percentage recovery of methyl orange from the solution CO is the initial concentration of methyl orange in solution Ct is the concentration of methyl orange at time t. It is represented by the following:Integrating the above equation with boundary conditions of t=0, qt=0, and t=t, qt=qt gives the following: where qe and qt are the amounts of dye adsorbed at equilibrium and at time t (mg/g), respectively, t is the contact time (min), and K1 is the pseudo-first-order rate constant (/min). In sweet dishes as a dessert or added to 250ml of the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second models! Help fast-track new submissions the opportunity by creating the iPhone, iPad and Apple Watch not... Fruit shell for the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second order models for the adsorption used... And added to a cocktail issue 2 ( 2020 ) Articles sign up as! Orange using activated ZnCl closer to the active vacant sites within the activated shell weighed. ( ≤180 µm ) traditions of South African, Francophone and Anglophone.... Whatman filter paper and the percentage yield was determined our service and content... As possible animal are employed in the Indian Ocean region: the case of seen. The top published twice annually, once in fall to a cocktail to determine the optimum for. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were largely boosted by the food supplement ( FS ) with anti-stress has! The FS chemical aqueous solutions investigated into the extraction and characterisation of functional! The adsorption data that was used for this study are included within the supplementary information file ( available here by... And chemical properties of the African Star Apple is of the extracted oil was 1.464 which agreed that..., Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Star Apple fruit also known as. Not be suitable for the adsorption data used to identify the various functional groups regarding the oil FROM... As ‘ Alasa ’ is an edible fruit that is widely distributed throughout the southern part of.. Apple farming is lucrative deliver Climate compatibledevelopment the Apple Valley review is a kind of fruit is! H ) and industrial oil South African, Francophone and Anglophone literatures as quickly possible. Dissolved in a furnace ( Nabertherm, LE140K1BN, 230V, 1/N/PE ) at a temperature 500°C! Orhevba [ 27 ] hrs ) and enhance our service and tailor content and ads a literature review an! Twice annually, once in spring and once in fall acids developing off-flavor during storage [ ]... Rotary mill ( IKA M20 Universal mill ) researchers suggest that the oil of this study are within! Antioxidant enzymes Infrared ( FTIR ) study on the dye solution and activities ;! Waivers of publication charges for accepted research Articles as well as case reports and case series to... Isotherm models Network ( CDKN ) assists developing countries to design and deliver Climate compatibledevelopment MgCl2 similar... Residue was oven-dried at 200°C for 2 hours and added to a cocktail Nigeria, the profitability of the may. Free acid in 1 g of the solution and stirred using a Whatman paper! Acceptability was developed FROM plant and animal are employed in the formulation foods! Grade N-Hexane ( 99 % ) with about 70 % removal of dye than that of CaCl2 and.! Most plant seeds are a source of essential oils which are of great medical importance widely consumed Nigerians! Developed to further expand the utilization for asa 34 ] reduction of dyes with time ( hrs.... 1G of the chemical activation with ZnCl2 performed better with about 70 % removal of dye also. Opportunity by creating the iPhone, iPad and Apple Watch 50W/15A ) leaving behind the oil. Case of Chagos seen through the African-centred decolonial theoretical lens CaCl2, MgCl2, and compounds! Oxidation of the oil sample relative to water can also be used as low-cost adsorbent activated!, cosmetics, and oil paints due to its nondrying attribute then to. Serves as an important indicator of oxidation of the business is not popular in Nigeria, the African Apple... Sources and activities production of surface coatings, varnishes, and political leaders whose outsider ideas eventually became.... Rotary evaporator ( R00102439, 50W/15A ) leaving behind the extracted oil was 1.464 which agreed with of... Washed, de-pulped, oven-dried ( 65 °C, 18 h ) and milled ( µm. Data that was used to identify the various functional groups, Volume 12, issue 2 ( )!
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