A number of constraints face the optimal production of marine fish from both the fishing and aquaculture fisheries. In Nigeria, overfishing is caused by several interrelated factors such as increase in population, ghost fishing, and problems associated with the creation of EEZ, and inadequate data, and high interest rates on loan. Section 11 provided the Minister of Agriculture the power to make regulations for furthering the interests of sea fishing industry in Nigeria and for giving effect to the provisions of this act. Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing livestock production sector in Nigeria and worldwide [4]. Sign up to receive occasional updates on our programs, research, publications and news. Fish farming means ‘raising fish commercially in tanks, ponds or other enclosures for the purpose of producing food’. Available marine fisheries regulations should be enforced and violators of the regulations should be punished as stipulated in the regulations. Through our partnership with the University of Ibadan we are providing scholarships to national students and supporting them to conduct research to understand the magnitude of cross-border trade flows between Nigeria and neighbouring states. are Plant residue those can fulfill the nutrient requirements of catfish. In Nigerian currently, anyone venturing into fish feed production business I in for a big profit. Yet, Nigeria imports over 900,000 metric tons of fish while its domestic catch is estimated at 450,000metric tons/year [1]. It is notable that fish provides more than 60.0% of the world’s supply of protein, especially in developing countries [1]. Fisheries production especially from marine is important for the socio-economic development of Nigerians and its contribution to the nation’s economic growth through the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Marine waters should also be protected against destruction and pollution as a result of human activities. We therefore recommended that the culture of marine fishes should be intensified. The demand for fish in Nigeria mostly outstrips the local production. The most fundamental impact of climate change on fish is through increase in global temperature. Fish are an important protein source in the diet of Nigerians. Available from: Sediment Transport in Aquatic Environments, Status of marine fisheries production in Nigeria, Constraints to optimal marine fisheries production in Nigeria, Agricultural Media Resources and Extension Centre, Federal University of Agriculture, Nigeria, Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Federal University of Agriculture, Nigeria. Aquaculture, to which fish farming belongs, is the commercial rearing of fish in conditions where all basic means of production can be controlled within their respective limitations and from which producers aim to obtain optimal economic results [18]. The main gears used are gillnets, cast nets, hooks, beach seines, and various forms of traps in the estuaries. The Exclusive Economic Zone Decree Act was promulgated by the Federal Government of Nigeria in 1978 in line with the provisions of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea [50]. This can be categorized into coastal canoe fishery, brackish water or estuarine canoe fishery, and artisanal pelagic fish bong shad and Sardinella fishery. Fish farming in Nigeria is currently a very lucrative business and this is boosted by the continuous rise in the demand for Catfish. Fishmeal is a great source of crude protein. This chapter is therefore focused on marine fisheries in Nigeria. WorldFish aims to harness this experience, combined with its expertise in fish genetics, to boost aquaculture productivity and enhance nutrition and food security in Nigeria. The Sea Fisheries Act is an act to make provisions for the control, regulation, and protection of sea fisheries in the territorial waters of Nigeria [49]. Despite the several regulations put in place by the Federal Government, marine fisheries resources have not been optimally produced and utilized due to noncompliance with the regulations by fishermen. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. High-quality production of fish feed is very crucial to the development and sustainability of fish farming in Nigeria especially, in the rural areas. Ocean warming globally affects marine fishery resources in many ways such as the destruction of coral reef ecosystems [80]. Nigeria is blessed with enough marine fisheries resources that could enhance increased fish production. In order to meet up with increasing demand for fisheries products, Nigerian federal governments have tremendously implemented a series of projects targeted at increasing the local supply of fish [5]. The first national policy was put in place by the federal government with the advice of the Federal Department of Fisheries when the Sea Fisheries Decree was promulgated under the Decree No 31 of 1971 to control and regulate coastal fisheries. The 1971 Sea Fisheries Act was repealed and replaced by the 1992 Sea Fisheries Decree in order to continuously promote the sustainability of the inshore fisheries and the fisheries of the EEZ in the country [52]. Penalties involving fines, imprisonment, or both are provided for those contravening the regulations [43]. We adopted a desk review approach. During this period, there were some programs aimed at increased fish production through input supply at subsidized rates, technology transfer, and revolving loan schemes among fishermen [48]. Nigeria is a maritime state where 9 of the 36 federal states have a coastline in the Atlantic Ocean. It’s based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. The problem of invasion of exotic fish species is linked to ballast water from ships. It was promulgated under the Decree No 71 of 1992 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria and contains 17 sections. You can also use some low cost conventional or unconventional animal by-products and plant residue in fish feed. Fish seed production . As at 2009, marine capture fisheries contributed about half (49%) of the world fish production, in comparison with mariculture (21%), fresh water aquaculture (23%) and inland capture fishery (6%) [47]. should be modified to allow for optimal marine fish production in Nigeria. Fish is a great source of food and protein. The provisions of this decree were on the licensing of motor fishing boats, penalties for unlicensed motor fishing boats enjoying the rights of licensed boats, powers and duties of licensing officers, and the penalty for violating the provisions of this decree. The fishermen in this group operate dug-out or improved canoes and target demersal species such as croakers, catfish, and shiny nose, and shrimp (Penaeids) in the estuaries. About 180 metric tons of extruded floating fish feed is produced monthly representing about 2200 metric tons per year. Nigeria, with a population of about 165,000,000 people is grossly underprovided with an essential food component, which is protein. This thereby limits the marine fishery production in Nigeria. The Niger Delta region is the oil producing area of Nigeria, which consists of highly diverse ecosystems that are supportive of numerous species of terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. World Bank Group [35] viewed fish culture, also known as fish farming, as an efficient animal protein production system providing essential nutrition for over 1 billion people. With the 1972 Sea Fisheries Decree, fishing trawlers are restricted from operating within the first 2 nautical miles of the continental shelf. Sections 5 and 6 were on appeals and returns, respectively, while Section 7 was on the enforcement of the Act. The highest marine fisheries production was 87.7 million tons in 1996, while the global recorded production was 79.5 million tons in 2009. Environmental factors affecting the availability, adequacy, and affordability of fish demands of Nigerians as a result of the deplorable state of the marine fisheries resources include pollution of aquatic environments and destruction of habitat. Domestic fish production is from artisanal and industrial fisheries, and aquaculture (fish farming aquaculture). Over the past 35 years, aquaculture production in Nigeria has grown 12 percent a year (compared to the world average of 8 percent), from a little over 6,000 metric tons in 1980 to nearly 307,000 metric tons in 2016. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. The 1995 Sea Fisheries Regulations originated from the Sea Fisheries Decree No 71 of 1992 and contains in addition to the provisions of the Sea Fisheries Decree 1992 Fish Inspection and Quality Assurance as the main text concerning the control of fishery products [52]. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Just 30% of this demand is met domestically, resulting in an annual spend of N125bn (US$625m) on fish imports. No fishing vessels (except canoes) shall fish within the first 2 nautical miles of the waters of the Nigerian Continental Shelf. The demand for fish in Lagos is well over 400,000 metric tonnes and what we are producing as a State is roughly at about 174,000 metric tonnes so there is a huge deficit of about 226,000 metric tonnes. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. Harnessing Research that makes a difference, Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security, Pan-Africa project to focus on fish trade potential, Paper to UN highlights implications of climate change for fish production, Innovative program to boost African fish trade and improve livelihoods, Genetic improvement: Dissemination of GIFT tilapia and improved catfish strains, Influencing youth and gender policies to increase women and youth participation and benefits derived from aquaculture and aquaculture-related activities, Promoting consumption of fish by pregnant and lactating women, and by infants; and reducing postharvest waste and loss in fish value chains, Integrating and enhancing the role of fish in domestic and regional trade. Rural and urban residents in Nigeria, a successful fish production is far below the fish good and nutritious fish! Of many developed and developing countries can not be overemphasized the seas 2013, the vast majority of act... 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