The Japanese admirals, whose own Navy had been modeled on the Royal Navy and whom they admired, themselves proposed their own Naval Air Service. It was completed in 1931 and entered service with the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1933. [2], Ryūjō had a length of 179.9 meters (590 ft 3 in) overall. They launched three Zeros as CAP at 14:55, shortly before two of the searching Grumman TBF Avenger torpedo bombers near-missed Ryūjō 150 meters (490 ft) astern with four 500-pound (230 kg) bombs three minutes later. This list may not reflect recent changes . [14] Her aircraft participated in the Second Battle of the Java Sea on 1 March and six B5Ns sank the American destroyer Pope after it had been abandoned by its crew. Ryūjō (Japanese: 龍驤 "prancing dragon") was a light aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. [2] Construction was rushed by plans to have Emperor Hirohito attend the launching ceremony and due to inexperience with the electric arc welding method, portions of the hull warped during construction. It was not until September 1938 that Taigei was deemed fully operational, and assigned to its design role as flagship of a submarine squadron. The cyclic rate was adjustable between 425 and 475 rounds per minute, but the need to change 30-round magazines reduced the effective rate to 250 rounds per minute. Ryūhō departed for Japan on 2 January 1945 escorted by Isokaze; when she arrived at Kure on 18 January, Ryūhō also gained the distinction of being the last Japanese aircraft carrier to venture outside the home waters of Japan.[5]. Ryūhō (龍鳳, "Dragon phoenix") was a light aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. English: Ryūjō was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. They sighted the carrier shortly afterward and attacked. Upon reaching Taiwan and unloading her cargo, Ryūhō was among the targets of a major series of American carrier-based air raids all over the island. She was converted from the submarine tender Taigei (大鯨, "Big Whale"), which had been used in the Second Sino-Japanese War. [5], In October, Ryūhō was sent on another aircraft ferry mission to Singapore, returning to Kure on 5 November. [5], The Tomozuru Incident of 12 March 1934, in which a top-heavy torpedo boat capsized in heavy weather, caused the IJN to investigate the stability of all their ships, resulting in a number of design changes to improve stability and increase hull strength. The ship transferred to Mutsu Bay on 25 May and then to Paramushiro on 1 June before departing the same day for the Aleutians. [5] As an aircraft carrier, the vessel was renamed Ryūhō. She was sunk by American dive bombers and torpedo bombers during the Battle of the Eastern Solomons on August 24th, 1942. Additionally, he was in charge as a group leader in the 202 Air Group from the Solomon Islands Campaign. Ryūjō turned north at 14:08, but her list continued to increase although the fires were put out. Pages in category "World War II aircraft carriers of Japan" The following 29 pages are in this category, out of 29 total. During this time, her aircraft elevators were enlarged in 1939: the forward elevator to 12.8 by 8.5 meters (42 by 28 ft) and the rear elevator to 13.7 by 7 meters (45 by 23 ft). [6], Ryūjō during the 1930s with a pair of Aichi D1A2 dive bombers overhead, Following the Japanese ship-naming conventions for aircraft carriers, Ryūjō was named "Prancing Dragon". The dive bombers attacked targets in and near Shanghai. English:The Imperial Japanese Navy aircraft carrier Ryūjō underway on 6 September 1934. No aircraft from either Ryūjō or Saratoga were shot down in the attack. Ryūjō Japanese carriers are just the worst!! See more ideas about imperial japanese navy, aircraft carrier, wwii aircraft. [10], During the carrier's 1934–36 refit, two of the 12.7-centimeter (5.0 in) mountings were exchanged for two twin-gun mounts for license-built Hotchkiss 25 mm Type 96 light AA guns,[6] resulting in a savings of approximately 60 long tons (61 t) of top-weight that improved the ship's overall stability. Bow view of light carrier Ryujo, 1933. She was subsequently assigned to the Second Carrier Division of the 3rd Fleet, accompanying the escort carriers Unyō and Chūyō to Truk and back, and remaining based in the Seto Inland Sea for training missions. Immediately after the launching ceremony, Taigei was returned to the dry dock for repairs and modifications, which involved replacement of damaged sections by the traditional rivet construction method. Japanese aircraft carriers have good maneuverability and concealment values, allowing them to re-position and evade enemies exceptionally well. She had herself participated in the second Sino-Japanese War. Her air group consisted of 24 Zeros and nine B5N2s. [12] The machine-guns were replaced during a brief refit in April–May 1942 with six triple-mount 25 millimeters (0.98 in) AA guns. She arrived at Kure on 13 July for a refit and was transferred to Carrier Division 2 a day later.[14]. [5] Upon returning to Kure on 1 April, Ryūhō was considered to be a total loss. Ryūhō (龍鳳, "Dragon phoenix") was a light aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. The ship carried 2,490 long tons (2,530 t) of fuel oil which gave her a range of 10,000 nautical miles (19,000 km; 12,000 mi) at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph). [5], On 19 March Ryūhō began a series of uneventful aircraft ferry missions to occupied islands in the South Pacific. The following day two waves of B5Ns, totalling 13 aircraft, attacked the British heavy cruiser Exeter and only managed to damage the ship's Supermarine Walrus seaplane. The carrier and her escorts, the light cruiser Yura and the destroyer Yugiri claimed to have sunk three more ships by gunfire. Jentschura, Hansgeorg; Jung, Dieter & Mickel, Peter (1977). In fact, the aircraft carrier balance was to decide the fate of the conflict. Ryūhō was attacked by Task Force 58 aircraft on 19 March near Kure, suffering hits by three 500 lb bombs and two 5.5-inch rockets. Ryūjō (Japanese: 龍驤 "Prancing Dragon") was a light aircraft carrier built for the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) during the early 1930s. She suffered only slight damage from near misses. From there, she sailed with the Combined Fleet to participate in the First Battle of the Philippine Sea. II, pp. During August–December 1937, Ryūjō supported land operations of the Japanese Army in China, as flagship of Carrier Division 1. This effectively made Ryūjō a single-elevator carrier and considerably hindered transfer of aircraft in and out of the hangars for rearming and refueling during combat operations. Ryūjō was planned as a light carrier of around 8,000 tonnes (7,900 long tons) standard displacement to exploit a loophole in the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 that carriers under 10,000 long tons (10,000 t) standard displacement were not regarded as "aircraft carriers". [14], In mid-1936, the ship was used to evaluate a dozen Aichi D1A dive bombers and dive-bombing tactics. [Note 1] Her air group had not changed, but four of each type of aircraft were spares. [5] This was the standard Japanese light AA gun during World War II, but it suffered from severe design shortcomings that rendered it a largely ineffective weapon. Her normal aircraft complement consisted of 15 Mitsubishi A6M "Zero" fighters and 16 Aichi D3A "Val" dive bombers, but for this mission, she was carrying 20 light bombers with their pilots and crews on a ferry mission. The Imperial Japanese Navy responded in part by the construction of auxiliary vessels, such as fleet oilers and submarine tenders, designed so that they could be converted quickly into aircraft carriers in time of conflict. On 25 October, with the escort carrier Kaiyō, Ryūhō set sail from Sasebo Naval District on another aircraft ferry mission to Keelung, Taiwan. [7], Ryūjō was a flush-decked carrier without an island superstructure; her navigating and control bridge was located just under the forward lip of the flight deck in a long glassed-in "greenhouse". Four Grumman F4F Wildcat fighters from Marine Fighter Squadron VMF-223 on combat air patrol (CAP) near Henderson Field spotted the incoming Japanese aircraft around 14:20 and alerted the defenders. [14], Japan Standard Time is 19 hours ahead of Hawaiian Standard Time, so in Japan, the, Shores, Cull & Izawa, Vol. [4] Her flight wing theoretically consisted of 31 aircraft, typically a mixture of Mitsubishi A6M "Zero" fighters, Aichi D3A "Val" and Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" dive bombers, and Nakajima B5N "Kate" torpedo bombers, but her small size limited her usefulness in combat operations. Matsunaga was relieved by Captain Torao Kuwabara on 20 October. Shores, Christopher; Cull, Brian & Izawa, Yasuho (1993). This ship was one of the first Japanese light aircraft carriers and was a textbook example of the Japanese habit of trying to cram a quart into a pint pot. Twenty crewmen were killed and 30 were wounded. Formally commissioned on 31 March 1934, Taigei was soon damaged by a typhoon in what was later called the "Fourth Fleet Incident". Her air group now consisted of a mixture of B3Y1 torpedo bombers, D1A1 dive bombers and A2N fighters, but her torpedo bombers were transferred after fleet maneuvers in October demonstrated effective dive bombing tactics. 393, 408–11. Another airstrike was launched on the following day by the two carriers that consisted of 15 Zeros, 11 D3As, and 6 B5Ns and successfully bombed Dutch Harbor. [4], No armor could be provided because of the need to keep Ryūjō's weight to 8,000 metric tons, although some protective plating was added abreast the machinery spaces and magazines, and her hull was lightly built. Two 13.6-by-12.0-metre (44.6 by 39.4 ft) elevators connected the flight deck to the hangar deck below. [14] On 1 April, while the 1st Air Fleet was starting its raid in the Indian Ocean, Malay Force, consisting of Ryūjō, six cruisers, and four destroyers, left Burma on a mission to destroy merchant shipping in the Bay of Bengal. The ship was unsuccessfully attacked by several Bristol Blenheim light bombers of No. According to historian Mark Stille, the weapon had many faults including an inability to "handle high-speed targets because it could not be trained or elevated fast enough by either hand or power, its sights were inadequate for high-speed targets, it possessed excessive vibration and muzzle blast"...[11] These 25-millimeter (0.98 in) guns had an effective range of 1,500–3,000 meters (1,600–3,300 yd), and an effective ceiling of 5,500 meters (18,000 ft) at an elevation of +85 degrees. On her first mission on 11 December, under the command of Captain Yoshio Kamei, she was sent to the Japanese naval base at Truk escorted by the destroyer Tokitsukaze. It was only after the Battle of Midway [June 1942] that the Japane… Feb 7, 2013 - Japanese aircraft carrier Ryūjō - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia While training in mid-1933, her initial air group consisted of nine Mitsubishi B1M2 (Type 13) torpedo bombers, plus three spares, and three A1N1 (Type 3) fighters, plus two spares. She also embarked at that time 24 A4N1 fighters, plus four and eight spare aircraft respectively. Ten more Wildcats from VMF-223 and VMF-212 scrambled, as well as two United States Army Air Corps Bell P-400s from the 67th Fighter Squadron in response. Not to be confused with with the earlier purpose-built, Light aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy, Japanese auxiliary ship classes of World War II, Japanese naval ship classes of World War II, Shipwrecks and maritime incidents in March 1945, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Japanese_aircraft_carrier_Ryūhō&oldid=986067092, Aircraft carriers of the Imperial Japanese Navy, Submarine tenders of the Imperial Japanese Navy, Second Sino-Japanese War naval ships of Japan, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 10 × triple, 4 × twin, 23 × single 25 mm AA guns, This page was last edited on 29 October 2020, at 16:13. The destroyer Amatsukaze (lower left) is moving away from Ryujo at full speed and Tokitsukaze (faintly visible, upper right) is backing away from the bow of Ryujo in order to evade the B-17's falling bombs. She was struck from the navy list on 30 November 1945[5] and scrapped in 1946. The disabled Ryujo (top center) being bombed on 24 August 1942, from high level by B-17 bombers. An aircraft carrier built under the restrictions of the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922. [14], The newly commissioned carrier Jun'yō joined Carrier Division 4, under the command of Kakuta, of the 1st Air Fleet with Ryūjō on 3 May 1942. [6], Shortly afterward, Ryūjō was one of many Japanese warships caught in a typhoon on 25 September 1935 while on maneuvers during the "Fourth Fleet Incident." The Japanese Navy had also observed technical developments in other countries and saw that the airplane had potential. Followers 2. Japanese aircraft carrier Ryūjō is a featured article; it (or a previous version of it) has been identified as one of the best articles produced by the Wikipedia community.Even so, if you can update or improve it, please do so. All together, Malay Force sank 19 ships totalling almost 100,000 gross register tons (GRT),[19] before reuniting on 7 April and arriving at Singapore on 11 April. Ryūjō (Japanese language: 龍驤 "prancing dragon") was a light aircraft carrier built for the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) during the early 1930s. A week later, her B5Ns were detached for torpedo training and the ship arrived at Kure on 23 April for a brief refit. A week later she was assigned to cover the convoy taking troops to Jakarta, Java. Ryūjō Class Overview Technical Information Usage [Source] HIJMS Ryūjō (龍驤,lit. Ryūjō (Japanese: 龍驤 "Dragon Horse") was a light aircraft carrier built for the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) during the early 1930s. Moored as an abandoned hulk off of Etajima, she was attacked by American aircraft again on 24 July and 28 July. Shortly before the start of hostilities in the Pacific War, Taigei was ordered back to Japan for conversion into a light aircraft carrier, arriving at Kure on 4 December. Ryūjō returned home in November and briefly became a training ship before she was assigned to Rear Admiral Tomoshige Samejima's Carrier Division 2. [8] Between them, they gave the ship the capacity to store 48 aircraft, although only 37 could be operated at one time. She was reassigned from the 1st Fleet to the 6th Fleet on 15 November 1940 and was based at Kwajalein Atoll from 10 April 1941. [6] Their effective range against aircraft was 700–1,500 meters (770–1,640 yd). Her air group was flown ashore on 6 October to support Japanese forces near Shanghai and Nanking. [14], At dawn on 3 June, she launched nine B5Ns, escorted by six Zeros, to attack Dutch Harbor on Unalaska Island. In August to December 1937, Ryūjō supported land operations of the Japanese Army in China as flagship of Carrier Division 1. With the exception of the Tier VIII premium Kaga, IJN carriers have AP bombers instead of HE. [2] One of the least successful of the light aircraft carrier conversions due to its small size, slow speed and weak construction, during World War II, Ryūhō was used primarily as an aircraft transport and for training purposes, although she was also involved in a number of combat missions, including the Battle of the Philippine Sea.[3]. An aircraft carrier built under the restrictions of the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922. One B5N crashed on take off and only six of the B5Ns and all of the Zeros were able to make it through the bad weather where they destroyed two PBYs and inflicted significant damage of the oil storage tanks and barracks. Follow-on attacks later that day were also unsuccessful. [4], The ship was fitted with two geared steam turbine sets with a total of 65,000 shaft horsepower (48,000 kW), each driving one propeller shaft, using steam provided by six Kampon water-tube boilers. 164, 191–92, Shores, Cull & Izawa, Vol. Japanese aircraft carrier Ryūjō. A Martin B-26 Marauder bomber and a PBY were shot down by Zeros, and a Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bomber was shot down by flak during the attack. Nine of the Zeros strafed the airfield while the B5Ns bombed it with 60-kilogram (130 lb) bombs to little effect. They accomplished little, destroying two Consolidated PBY seaplanes on the ground for the loss of one B5N and A5M. While escorting another raid later that same day, the Japanese pilots claimed five aircraft shot down and one probably shot down. The conversion work began on 20 December at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, and was originally scheduled to be completed within three months; however, numerous problems and issues arose, and the conversion work was not completed until 30 November 1942. II, pp. Small and lightly built in an attempt to exploit a loophole in the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, she proved to be top-heavy and only marginally stable and was back in the shipyard for modifications to address those issues within a year of completion. On 20 June, as part of "Force B" (with the carriers Hiyō, Junyō, the battleship Nagato, the cruiser Mogami and eight destroyers), Ryūhō was attacked by four Grumman TBF Avenger torpedo bombers from the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise. In the meantime, the carrier USS Saratoga had launched an airstrike against the Detached Force in the early afternoon that consisted of 31 Douglas SBD Dauntlesses and eight Avengers; the long range precluded fighter escort. The following month the ship was chosen to evaluate dive-bombing tactics using six (plus two spares) Nakajima E4N2-C Type 90 reconnaissance aircraft, six (plus two spares) Yokosuka B3Y1 Type 92 torpedo bombers, and a dozen (plus four spares) A2N1 Type 90 fighters. [16] In January 1942 her aircraft supported Japanese operations in the Malay Peninsula. The order to abandon ship was given at 15:15 and the destroyer Amatsukaze moved alongside to rescue the crew. This reduced the length of the flight deck by 2 meters (6 ft 7 in). Her aircraft complement consisted of 12 Nakajima A4N fighters and 15 Aichi D1A dive bombers. This article appeared on Wikipedia's Main Page as … Ryūjō was a light aircraft carrier built for the Imperial Japanese Navy during the early 1930s. Tully, Anthony P.; Casse, Gilbert (1999; revised March 2012). While greatly improving on engine performance and reliability, the more powerful engines were not powerful enough to overcome the increased displacement and side bulges in the hull of the modified design, and speed was decreased by two knots. At 09:10 on 12 December, she was hit by a single torpedo on the starboard side from the American submarine USS Drum near Hachijojima, and was immediately forced to return to Yokosuka for emergency repairs, and remained out of operation until early 1943. [15] The dive bombers attacked targets near Canton until the ship sailed to the Shanghai area on 3 October. [14], Carrier Division 1 arrived off Shanghai on 13 August 1937 to support operations of the Japanese Army in China. [15] The carriers returned to Sasebo at the beginning of September to resupply before arriving off the South China coast on 21 September to attack Chinese forces near Canton. By Bradenton44, April 30 in Aircraft Carriers. Survival of the Japanese carrier fleet in World War 2 was key to the Empire's success in the Pacific - which clearly made it a target for Allied forces. Ryūjō, already known to be only marginally stable, was promptly docked at the Kure Naval Arsenal for modifications that strengthened her keel and added ballast and shallow torpedo bulges to improve her stability. Although Taigei was designed from the onset for possible later conversion to an aircraft carrier, the design proved to have many shortcomings. She was also designed with only a single hangar, which would have left her with an extremely low profile (there being just 4.6 meters (15 ft 1 in) of freeboard amidships and 3.0 meters (9 ft 10 in) aft). This Detached Force was commanded by Rear Admiral Chūichi Hara in Tone. Ryūjō was a light aircraft carrier built for the Imperial Japanese Navy during the early 1930s. Johnny Carson Recommended for you [14] Nine fighters from Ryūjō escorted a raid on the city and claimed six of the defending fighters. The following year, in 1913 a Navy transport ship, the … [5], As completed, Ryūjō's primary anti-aircraft (AA) armament comprised six twin-gun mounts equipped with 40-caliber 12.7-centimeter Type 89 dual-purpose guns mounted on projecting sponsons, three on either side of the carrier's hull. She was laid down by Mitsubishi at Yokohama in 1929, launched in 1931 and commissioned on 9 May 1933. Her crew consisted of 600 officers and enlisted men. . [8] The small rear elevator became a problem as the IJN progressively fielded larger and more modern carrier aircraft. [4] The new vessel was also plagued by the poor performance of its diesel engines, which gave only half the output expected. Navy Aircraft Carrier Imperial Japanese Navy Naval History Navy Ships Royal Navy War Machine Water Crafts Battleship World War Two. [26], The bomb hits set the carrier on fire and she took on a list from the flooding caused by the torpedo hit. [5], Ryūhō engaged in several more patrol and training missions near Japan. The aircraft, later dubbed the Akutan Zero, remained largely intact and was later salvaged and test-flown. Taigei was laid down at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal on 12 April 1933, and was launched on 16 November 1933. Her 156.5-meter (513 ft 5 in) flight deck was 23 meters (75 ft 6 in) wide and extended well beyond the aft end of her superstructure, supported by a pair of pillars. She proved to be top-heavy and only marginally stable and was back in the shipyard for modifications to address those issues within a year after completion. Twelve TBF Avengers attacked her, but none scored a hit, and Ryūhō's gunners shot down one of them. The following day, four A4Ns claimed to have shot down nine Chinese fighters without loss to themselves. [9] Twenty-four anti-aircraft (AA) Type 93 13.2 mm Hotchkiss machine guns were also fitted, in twin[7] and quadruple mounts. This was a common flaw amongst many treaty-circumventing Japanese warships of her generation. They also covered convoys carrying troops to Sumatra. Their maximum rate of fire was 14 rounds a minute, but their sustained rate of fire was around eight rounds per minute. Articles containing Japanese-language text, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Aircraft carriers of the Imperial Japanese Navy, World War II shipwrecks in the Pacific Ocean, American landings on Guadalcanal and Tulagi, Washington Naval Treaty, Chapter II, Part 4, Definitions, "INTERNATIONAL TREATY FOR THE LIMITATION AND REDUCTION OF NAVAL ARMAMENT", http://www.microworks.net/pacific/road_to_war/london_treaty.htm, HIJMS Ryujo position and chart on the wrecksite, Japanese naval ship classes of World War II, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Japanese_aircraft_carrier_Ryūjō?oldid=4524998, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls, 10,000 nmi (19,000 km; 12,000 mi) at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph), 10,600 tonnes (10,400 long tons) (standard). 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